In 1919, the Prince of Wales officially opened the Quebec Bridge and unveiled plaques in honour of the engineers who had designed and built the magnificent structure. ENG 3000 York University Ali Dianat, Armin Ghaemi, Amir-Hossein Khademi, Sean O'Brien, Kevin Suarez Over 35,000 vehicles, including 270 transit buses, and approximately 8 VIA passenger trains and 5 CN freight trains cross the Québec Bridge every day. The newspaper articles detail the 1916 construction accident on the second Quebec bridge; one 1917 article about the bridge; and one 1986 article about the 1907 collapse of the first bridge. During the federal inquiry into the disaster, Hall was asked whether he knew something was wrong with the bridge just by the feel and not by the sight of it. During the period listed in the previous question, the bridge builders at Quebec were attempting to span what body of water? There was no mention, however, of the men who died when the bridge collapsed. The Quebec Bridge (Canada) was built in 18 years. Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940) Lessons from the Failure of a Great Machine Quebec Bridge Collapsed For The 2nd Time On September 11 1916 Scientific Diagram. The collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. In 1916, a redesigned 5,000-ton center span was jacked into place from barges, but as thousands of spectators watched, it too crashed into the river when a jack bearing failed. It would be well to draw attention to as much care as possible in future work to get the best results in matching all the members before the full strains are brought upon them.”. McLure will be over at five o’clock.” Cooper believed that the same message would be forwarded from Phoenixville to Quebec City, but this never happened. The project failed twice, at the cost of 88 lives, and took over 30 years to complete. Quebec Fires, 1845-1876. Acting on Hoare’s advice, McLure went to New York City to brief Cooper first hand about the difficulties. Legion Magazine engages Canadians in commemorating the effort, bravery and sacrifice of those who served and continue to serve in Canada’s military. It was, and still is, the longest clear span cantilever bridge in the world, measuring 549 metres between its main pillars. Pre-Centennial Period Date Disaster Type Location Region Notes Ref(s) 1917 December 6: Halifax Explosion: Wartime explosion Halifax, Nova Scotia Maritimes World War I On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Quebec Bridge. on the wiki sept. 11th page it refers to 1916 - The Quebec Bridge collapses for a second time, killing 11 men. One important innovation that added strength to the bridge was the K-truss design. After four successful lifts on the north end and five lifts on the south end, the workmen–about 80 in all–took a break. William Treggett Jr. was involved in the construction of the center span of the bridge. In 1929, a roadway was added to the two rail lines to accommodate the needs of residents in the Québec city area, and it operated as a toll bridge for cars from 1929 to 1942. ... Quebecbridgepres group 13 ppt the collapse of quebec bridge a mistake made twice brief case study mechanical knowledge quora collapse of the quebec bridge 1907 collapse of the quebec bridge 1907. A few seconds later, the other ends pulled off their supports and the whole span came loose and disappeared into the river. There are three postcards, both black-and-white and color, of the Quebec Bridge. At last, the world’s longest cantilever bridge was completed and the first train crossed it in October. After their meeting on the morning of the Aug. 29, 1907, Cooper telegraphed the contracting company in Phoenixville as follows: “Add no more load to the bridge till after due consideration of the facts. The Prince of Wales officially inaugurated the Québec Bridge on August 29, 1919. bridge at Quebec City. But despite these and other irregularities, the Phoenix Bridge Company did not halt construction. They had lived with this span. The bridge collapsed during construction on August 29, 1907, killing 75 workers. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design.” The commission attributed this to “errors of judgement” on the part of Peter L. Szlapka, the designing engineer, and Theodore Cooper, the consulting engineer. Thirteen men were carried to their deaths and several others were injured. Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. During its construction, the bridge collapsed twice, killing 89 people. Nothing came over on me.” Amazingly, when Lajeunesse landed he was not even dislodged from the girder he was standing on. Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. Three engineers were appointed: H. E. Vautelet, a former engineer for the Canadian Pacific Railways, Maurice FitzMaurice from Britain, who worked on the construction of the Forth Bridge , and Ralph Modjeski from Chicago. The Quebec Bridge Company then let a contract to the Phoenix Bridge Company of Phoenixville, Pa., to build the structure. So in 1908, the minister of railways and canals appointed a board of engineers that arranged for and supervised the design and erection of a new bridge. By then, the south anchor arm, the tower and two panels of the south cantilever arm were ready and six sections of anchor arm were in place. Remarkably, Cooper, who claimed he was not in good health, worked out of his New York City office and did not make visits to the site during the erection of the superstructure. The Quebec Bridge is a riveted steel truss structure and is 987m long, 29m wide, and 104m high. Travellers were used to carry heavy loads to specific jobs on the bridge. Meanwhile, back at the construction site, at about the same time the decision-makers in Phoenixville were ending their meeting, the Quebec Bridge collapsed at 5:30 p.m. For years, the bridge has been viewed as an engineering marvel, but few people know the full story behind its construction and the two disasters that claimed the lives of 89 workers. “A cry of anguish went up from the onlookers as the span rushed to its watery bed,” noted an article in one Toronto newspaper. The inquiry, which concluded with a report published in 1908, also heard from the Lajeunesse brothers who were among the few who had landed near the foreshore. Newport Point, QB Fatal House Fire, Mar 1923. From an investigation by the St. Lawrence Bridge Company, the company assigned to build the bridge, the collapse was due to a material failure in one of the four bearing castings that supported the central span. At 10:50 a.m, soon after they returned to work, something went terribly wrong. 21 Feb.2003 Québec, 11 September 1916 - The world’s largest cantilever suspension bridge collapsed with the loss of more than 25 lives yesterday. “I thought, well, I am finished, but I stood there. The collapse of the first On August 17, 1908, the Minister of Railways and Canals tasked 3 engineers, including the Canadian H.E. Spanning the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City, the massive Quebec Bridge has a history of triumph and tragedy. Bridging The St Lawrence Wonders Of World Ering. A masterpeice of engineering, a historic structure and a strategic asset. During this time, there were two accidents (1907, 1916). The devel-opment of a cantilever design, which seemed the only solu-tion at the time, is described. How they got there I don’t know, but they saved my life.”, Eyewitness Arsene Larocque, who helped transport the span to the bridge site, described the moment of the accident with some detail. On Sept. 20, 1917, the suspended span was lifted into position and fastened to the cantilever arms. Fortunately no lives were lost at this time. Ingwall Hall, one of the few survivors, lost two fingers in the accident. à The Collapse of September 11, 1916 ... Holtz, Neal. Rather, the loss resulted from the failure of a casting in the erection equipment that temporarily supported the southwest corner of the span. He also modified specifications that would allow for higher The story of the bridge begins in 1887 when a number of entrepreneurs from Quebec City decided there was a need to increase business traffic in the area. Besides being a transportation link for trains, the bridge would serve as a crossing point for vehicles and pedestrians. “Make as good work of it as you can,” came Cooper’s reply. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. Ottawa’s Heron Road Bridge also collapsed during construction, on 10 August 1966. It was as if they had lost a great friend. What caused the Quebec Bridge collapses of 1907 and 1916? In fact, the wrecked structure was in such poor condition that it was unrecognizable to the men who had been very familiar with it for nearly two years. The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roa… Almost 12 years to the day after the tragic collapse, the Prince of Wales opened the … From the War of 1812 to modern armed forces missions around the world, Legion Magazine offers a blend of stories, photographs, graphics, maps and posters on Canadian military history and heritage, veterans’ issues and the Canadian Armed Forces. Today, the bridge continues to allow passengers and goods to move freely between the two shores and the rest of North America. Preliminary calculations weren't checked, and the bridge was too heavy to support itself. By 1916, the bridge was nearly completed. The 5,100-ton span had been built and was sitting in Sillery Cove, approximately 3 1/2 miles from the bridge site. Seventy-eight years later, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada unveiled a new plaque that commemorates this “remarkable engineering achievement,” but the wording on the plaque pays only scant attention to the workmen who died during its construction. He endorsed the Phoenix design as the “best and the cheapest” of those submitted, although he decided to lengthen the centre span from 1,600 to 1,800 feet. Vautelet, with carrying out necessary changes to the bridge’s basic design. The new design was again for a bridge with a single long cantilever span, but a much more massive one. The ill-starred bridge suffered a second disaster on 11 September 1916 when a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. Tay Bridge (1879) Tom Martin's Tay Bridge Disaster. In 1949, the federal authorities decided to change the configuration of the decks by repurposing one of the rail lines for car traffic. The giant arms and the steel bands which held the span shook considerably.”. The rescuers had less than an hour to save the men, and while they tried very hard to get the men out, they lacked the equipment. CHANGES OF THE PLAN Before construction was to begin, Cooper lengthened the span from 1600 ft to 1800 ft. Completed in 1917 at a cost of more than $22 million, it is the longest cantilever bridge in the world, stretching more than 1,800 feet between its main piers. The bridge construction was restarted in 1913 and completed in August 1919. A … Search for related information by keyword. Legion Magazine is published six times a year in English with a French insert. The Quebec Bridge structure plunged over 150 feet taking with it the lives of 75 workers. The dead included 33 Mohawk steel workers from the Caughnawaga reserve at Lachine, Que., near Montreal. The Canadian government had hoped to hire its own engineer to review the weight calculations, but Cooper objected and the government reluctantly approved the plans without alteration. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. To this day, the collapsed central span rests at the bottom of the river. On May 23, 1987, the Québec Bridge was designated a Historical Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers to highlight the technical challenge of its construction at the beginning of the century. This led to the use of nickel alloy steel to decrease the risk of fracturing. The rail bridge was designed to link the two shores and provide easier transit for the 11 railroad companies in particular between the railways in Québec and the United States. Then, on September 11 th, 1916, the time came to raise the central span that had been constructed in Sillery Cove, which was intended to join the two cantilever arms and finish the building of the bridge. Undaunted, the city and its engineers made a third attempt, duplicating the second design. The bridge finally was completed and opened for traffic in August of 1918. Eighty-six workers were present on the bridge at the time. The Royal Commission, which investigated the cause of the disaster, concluded that “the collapse of the Quebec Bridge resulted from the failure of the lower chords in the anchor arm near the main pier. On October 2, 1900, the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, placed the cornerstone of the Québec Bridge. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse [of the Quebec Bridge in August 1907 ], construction started on a second bridge. Then it disappeared. Cooper decided to forge ahead and not introduce any changes. All rights reserved. As the huge center span was being lifted into place, it … The Phoenix Bridge Company’s design called for a cantilever bridge of 150 feet in height above the high water mark. Contrary to popular belief the first rings were not made from iron from the collapsed bridge. Much of this debris had to be cleared away before work could start on a new bridge. It collapsed two times in this duration once in 1907 killing 75 workers and second time in 1916 killing 13 workers. Quebec, QB St. Charles Orphanage Fire Disaster, Dec 1927. No other part of the bridge was damaged. The bridge initially collapsed on August 29, 1907. Hall fell into deep, icy-cold water where he spent a few anxious minutes before being picked up by a makeshift rescue boat. “It is not serious. Off Seven Islands, QB Steamer ST. OLAF Sinks In St. Lawrence River, Nov 1900 ... Quebec City, QC Bridge Collapse, Sept 1916. As part of its commitment to the bridge project, the government guaranteed a bond issue to help pay for the work. Later that same day, McLure met with Phoenixville Bridge Company officials in Phoenixville and after some discussion it was decided that they would reconvene the following day. I thought the traveller had fallen down on the bridge. Submitted by gendisasters. Vautelet was President and Chief Engineer. The centre span seemed to buckle in the middle and roll over, twisting the great steel girders. Over 100,000 people gathered in Quebec City to celebrate the big day. The Quebec Bridge Company selected Theodore Cooper, a well-known American bridge designer, as the project’s consulting engineer. As the water level rose, the trapped men drowned. Construction started in 1913, and eventually the two approach spans, the anchor arms and cantilevers went up on either side of the river. Work was resumed, but on 11 September 1916 a new centre span being hoisted into position fell into the river, killing 13 men. The bridge was finally completed in 1917. Home » Canada Corner » O Canada » A Bridge With Two Tragedies. In spite of the enormity of the accident, the federal government decided the project must be completed to establish the rail link for the railway system. A few years later, on August 29, 1907, the south section of the bridge collapsed and killed 76 workers, including 33 Mohawk workers from the Kahnawake community. This feature was conceived by Phelps Johnson, president and general manager of St. Lawrence Bridge Company. But the tragedy of 1907 ranks as one of the worst losses of life in the history of our Union. A grave error was made in assuming the dead load for the calculations at too low a value … I came to this side of the bridge and I looked, and when I saw the bridge go down in that way I was on that chord, and I thought that chord made the bridge fall.”. They have lost when victory seemed certain.”, Bridge worker Enoch McCann, who could not swim, was picked out of the chilly water by a rescue boat. Disturbed by this report, Cooper asked for further details on how they became bent. The failure of these chords was due to their defective design. The bridge was completed in 1917 and the Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII) officially opened it on 22 August 1919. In 1903, the Government of Canada vigorously promoted the bridge project because it wanted to see the establishment of the National Transcontinental Railway from Moncton to Winnipeg. The Oct. 19, 1916, report by the board of engineers stated that the St. Lawrence Bridge Company “advised your board that they assume entire responsibility for the failure” of the casting in the erection equipment and the “resulting loss of the span.” The report went on to note that the company had taken immediate steps to replace the span. As before, the design called for a cantilever-type bridge, but it differed from the previous one with the lower chords of the cantilever arms several times stronger. On September 11, 1916, the bridge tragically collapsed for the last time killing 13 workers and injuring more than 14 others. Only eleven workers on the span survived. In February 1906, Cooper became concerned when he examined the detailed drawings of the Phoenix Bridge Company and found that the actual weight of the manufactured steel parts far exceeded the weight estimated by Szlapka prior to manufacturing. Dee Bridge (1847) An Engineer's Aspect: The Dee Railway Bridge Disaster of 1847. For these men and for their rescuers, the situation became more frantic as the tide came in. A large number of people witnessed the accident from shore and their reaction was one of disbelief. Construction continued because it was thought that the increase in stresses would be safe. When I did, I found two pieces of wood wedged in tightly at the elbow joint of both my arms. When the Quebec Bridge collapsed in September 1916, a horrific sense of déjà vu was felt throughout the city. By Aug. 27, the misalignment of one of the lower chords became very noticeable. About second collapse of the bridge After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge, but September 11, 1916, when the central span was being raised into position, it fell into the river, killing 13 workers. In 1913, construction began, and the central span was built in Sillery Cove from May to July 1916. From the ruins of this first attempt emerged still another plan. The traveller was in the same place. For enquiries, contact us. The design included two tracks for trains and one lane of roadway. The bridge is both an architectural gem and a national historical site. Murdochville QB Bridge Collapse, May 1963. There was a roaring, grinding sound when it collapsed. Hall’s traveller was located at the end of the south cantilever arm. He recalled the events: “I was on top just putting a turn on the rope to send up a box of bolts when I saw something jerk the bridge. Quebec (1907 and 1916) A Bridge with Two Tragedies. After a Royal Commission of Inquiry into the collapse, construction started on a second bridge. My partner was just about seven or eight feet from me, and I never noticed him and never saw him–never knew anything.”. Legion Magazine is published by Canvet Publications Ltd. © 2020 Legion Magazine. On September 11, 1916, when the central span wa… On September 20, 1917, the construction and installation of a new span were successfully completed connecting the two sides of the St. Lawrence River and the first locomotive crossed over the river to the south shore with two passenger cars carrying 400 passengers on October 17, 1917. You will not receive a reply. In 1907 the incomplete structure collapsed into the river with a loss of 75 lives. The bridge was rebuilt, and on September 11, 1916, the bridge collapsed again killing 13 men. Two months later it was opened to regular trains, vehicle and pedestrian traffic. “There was a noise like the snapping of steel. To meet the growing traffic between the shores, a third roadway was added in 1993. yeah, where's the second collapse info? 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