The Arctic Ocean covers much of the Arctic and washes upon Northern America and Eurasia.It is sometimes considered a sea or estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.. The Arctic is a region of the planet, north of the Arctic Circle, and includes the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Baffin Island, other smaller northern islands, and the far northern parts of Europe, Russia (Siberia), Alaska and Canada. The temperature of the surface water of the Arctic Ocean is fairly constant at approximately −1.8 °C (28.8 °F), near the freezing point of seawater. , "Arctic Sea" redirects here. He is now very friendly, we mention Ran Fiennes several times in our conversation, and it seems the airport is now open. It requires at least fоur sharks.  Cyclones are only common on the Atlantic side. , On 16 July 2015, five nations (United States, Russia, Canada, Norway, Denmark/Greenland) signed a declaration committing to keep their fishing vessels out of a 1.1 million square mile zone in the central Arctic Ocean near the North Pole.  It flows slowly, at about 0.02 m/s. Countries bordering the Arctic Ocean are: Russia, Norway, Iceland, Greenland (territory of the Kingdom of Denmark), Canada and the United States. This map was created by a user.  The surface waters of the northernmost Arctic Ocean warmed, seasonally at least, enough to support tropical lifeforms (the dinoflagellates Apectodinium augustum) requiring surface temperatures of over 22 °C (72 °F). Whether your map is paper or digital, mastering the basics of reading it are vital to finding your way around and understanding how the world works. The two major basins are further subdivided by ridges into the Canada Basin (between Alaska/Canada and the Alpha Ridge), Makarov Basin (between the Alpha and Lomonosov Ridges), Amundsen Basin (between Lomonosov and Gakkel ridges), and Nansen Basin (between the Gakkel Ridge and the continental shelf that includes the Franz Josef Land).  Estimates vary for when the last time the Arctic was ice-free: 65 million years ago when fossils indicate that plants existed there to as recently as 5,500 years ago; ice and ocean cores going back 8,000 years to the last warm period or 125,000 during the last intraglacial period. Published in digital format, the new chart expands up to 19.6% the submarine surface mapped in previous versions. Because of its relative isolation from other oceans, the Arctic Ocean has a uniquely complex system of water flow.  In ice-covered regions of the central Arctic Ocean, polar cod is a central predator of primary consumers. The Arctic Ocean lies in the norht polar regions of the Eurth, it is surrounded by Eurasia and North America. , Human habitation in the North American polar region goes back at least 50,000–17,000 years ago, during the Wisconsin glaciation. The whole area is subject to international territorial claims. Disclosure: This trip was sponsored by Mazda of which I created a highlight video to share my once-in-a-lifetime journey. At this time, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge that joined Siberia to northwestern North America (Alaska), leading to the Settlement of the Americas.  The US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) uses satellite data to provide a daily record of Arctic sea ice cover and the rate of melting compared to an average period and specific past years, showing a continuous decline in sea ice extent. Retrieved 18 November 2013. Winters are characterized by the polar night, extreme cold, frequent low-level temperature inversions, and stable weather conditions. amzn_assoc_linkid = "f050dc3bdcb4e8360076d2fc7d2f7cc9"; The sea ice is affected by wind and ocean currents, which can move and rotate very large areas of ice. Icebergs pose a hazard to ships, of which the Titanic is one of the most famous. It is generally taken to include Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Iceland Sea, Norwegian Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. , Water enters from both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and can be divided into three unique water masses. The final defined water mass in the Arctic Ocean is called Arctic Surface Water and is found from 150–200 metres (490–660 feet). A final example of seasonal pressure system movement is the low pressure system that exists over the Nordic and Barents Seas. 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