(2016) Non motor subtypes and Parkinson’s disease. Ethnic disparities in incidence of stroke subtypes: Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study, 2002-2003. Yih Y , , ,  |  Extrapolating from this it implies that at least some of the observed differences in the prevalence of PD might be related to case ascertainment. Peculiar geographic distribution of these mutations has triggered an interest in genotyping PD cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds for LRRK. Rozenberg R Annoni K , Kim BC Brice A Lees AJ Acta Neurol Scand 135, 400–406. Tolosa E After Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson Disease is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, with an estimated lifetime risk of approximately 1 in 100 persons. Zhang L , Berger K , Deng H Satake W JAMA Neurol 71, 499–504. Bus BA Schaake S Martin WR Zhu K Caparros-Lefebvre D Gwinn-Hardy K This disease has been traced to different gene mutations. Bonuccelli U Fross RD , , , Kilbourn MR Dotchin C Driver JA Qureshi AR Mok V , (2013) A single-center, cross-sectional prevalence study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease: Association with dopaminergic drugs. Amod FH , Aung T Wan Y Tan EK Barone P , Dr Alastair Noyce – Dr. Noyce is funded by the Barts Charity. Mok V , Denaro J , , Shulman LM Genetic variation almost certainly contributes substantially to the heterogeneity seen in the manifestations of PD but as with many chronic diseases, the current literature largely reflects study in populations of European ancestry [1]. Global, regional, and national burden of Parkinson’s disease, 1990-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study (2016). Rosenberger WF Falcone D 2005 Mar;103(3):146, 148, 150 passim. , Giladi N , , , , Siderowf A Montilla V , , , (2011) Relationship between the type and side of motor symptoms with the prevalence of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. , , Wright Willis A Table 1 shows the proportions of each motor subtype where the motor subtype was determined in de novo PD cases [11, 28, 37–68]. , , , , Weitzman N (2014) Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson’s disease. Kang KW Frades-Payo B PLoS One 11, e0152534. Ma J , Hardy J (2017) Survival after dementia diagnosis in five racial/ethnic groups. Chen W , , , , , , Petit A Mov Disord Clin Pract 5, 14–28. When comparing mortality occurring after hip and pelvic fractures in PD patients Black patients also have a higher adjusted hazard ratio of mortality (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.09–1.16), whereas rates may be lower in Hispanic patients (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.81–0.95) [27]. , van Gerpen JA Prieto-Jurcynska C , Schapira AH Glass PG (2002) The association of incident dementia with mortality in PD. Black PD patients also have higher odds of bring prescribed dementia medications (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.28–1.38) compared with White PD patients which may reflect increased cognitive dysfunction [122]. , , Neurology 82, 163–171. (2014) Patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease with and without freezing of gait: A comparative analysis of vascular lesions using brain MRI. , Whiting D (2018) Non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A cross-sectional survey. Barbosa ER Trenkwalder C , , Lancet 344, 882–883. , , , Matui P , Kropp P , Int J Neurosci 126, 734–738. Toda T , For example, when searching for mono-ethnic studies that measured motor subtype in PD samples we searched for the terms; “type”, “sub type”, “subtype”, “sub-type”, “motor”, “postural instability”, “rigid akinetic”, “rigid-akinetic”, “rigid-akinesia”, “rigid akinesia”, “tremor-dominant” and “tremor dominant”. Hoffman S Information on Parkinson's disease-related medications was extracted from the national Pharmaceutical Collection of community-dispensed medications for the period January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2014. Voon V Brain 125, 801–811. , , Cognitive impairment is one of the most frequent and disabling non-motor symptoms of PD [117]. , May MT Henderson J Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition, which affects people worldwide (Kalia & Lang, 2015).There is a growing interest in the possible impact of gender and ethnicity in PD. Slassi I Muller ML , Camacho-Ordonez A , We conclude that whilst there is little published evidence for ethnic variation in the clinical features of Parkinson’s disease, there are substantial limitations and gaps in the current literature, which mean that the evidence does necessarily not fit with clinical observation. , The goal of this study was to estimate the incidence of Parkinson's disease by age, gender, and ethnicity. , Hemming JP (2010) LRRK2 G2019S in the North African population: A review. J Neurol 258, 1042–1045. Lamberti P , Given their rarity, little is known about ethnic variation in the main recessive causes of PD such as parkin and DJ1, but a variant of PINK1 is known to have a higher carrier frequency in Filipinos [130]. We excluded any studies that identified patients based on genotype alone or the presence of a particular symptom (e.g., PD patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder). Tel. Malek N Jellinger KA Tan CT , , (2016) Motor subtype as a predictor of future working memory performance in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Hirata K Foltynie T Vickrey BG , Chen YC (2002) Predictors of mortality among nursing home residents with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. Larsen JP Ross OA Foote KD , Brandel JP Steeves TD , Bronstein JM , The extent to which T2DM and other co-morbidities may be determining ethnic variation observed in PD is unknown at present but an important topic to further explore. , Logroscino G CNS Neurosci Ther 19, 889–896. , , Select this link to jump to navigation, In navigation section. Park MJ , (2018) Mortality from Parkinson’s disease in China: Findings from a ten-year follow up study in Shanghai. Pringsheim T Sci Rep 9, 797. Chen H , , (2014) Mortality in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Buros J Hubbard RA , , Jones RN Arch Neurol 68, 498–503. , Baig F The global prevalence of Parkinson’s disease is increasing, yet the characteristics, risk factors and genetics of PD in Black, Asian and Hispanic populations is little understood. Dahodwala et al., showed that African-Americans are four times less likely than White PD patients to receive PD treatment (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09–0.64) [158]. Lim CC Damholdt MF Evanoff BA Select this link to jump to navigation, In footer section. A smaller PD GWAS was performed in Japan (2,011 PD cases and 18,381 controls) in 2009 [137]. Amongst the minority ethnic patients that do receive treatment prescribing errors are more likely; Hispanic PD patients have an increased probability of being co-prescribed an anticholinesterase inhibitor and a high potency anticholinergic; a frank prescribing error [122]. Quattrone A Samaddar T Ziegler SG (2012) Are there ethnic differences in impulsive/compulsive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease? Levy G , Parkinson's disease; ethnic variation; incidence; pharmacoepidemiology; prevalence. Leimpeter A , Wunderlich GR , For example, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to have an association with subsequent PD [148]. Wang L Barker RA , (2014) Disparities in deep brain stimulation surgery among insured elders with Parkinson disease. , Brain 133, 2410–2425. Hays RD Clinical experience and emerging evidence suggest that ethnicity is a further key determinant of heterogeneity, with differences in epidemiology, clinical manifestations and mortality observed. Nussbaum R , Melamed E (2016) Ethnic inequalities in limiting health and self-reported health in later life revisited. Alzheimers Dement 6, 158–194. Myall DJ, Pitcher TL, Pearson JF, Dalrymple-Alford JC, Anderson TJ, MacAskill MR. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. Non-motor symptoms questionnaire (NMSQ) results by country. Mov Disord 27, 512–518. , Harris-Hayes M , Liang J Ojo OO , (2009) Treatment disparities in Parkinson’s disease. Troiano AR New Zealand is an ethnically diverse country with a unified national prescribing system. Pico F , Leonard H Jankovic J Rafai MA (2017) Neuropathology of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. , , Onar MK Eur J Neurol 22, 457–463. Colcher A (2011) Relation of subjective quality of life to motor symptom profile in Parkinson’s disease. Willis AW – Cultural, ethnic and gender stereotypes can significantly distort clinical judgments about "facially masked" patients with Parkinson's disease, according to a newly published study from researchers at Tufts University, Brandeis University and the … Feigin V, Carter K, Hackett M, Barber PA, McNaughton H, Dyall L, Chen MH, Anderson C; Auckland Regional Community Stroke Study Group. (2018) Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease-east versus west. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 24, 34–40. , , first noticed this in 2000 in London’s Black population [34] and this observation has since been substantiated by large-scale health record studies. , For PD patients, being treated by a neurologist was inversely associated with residing in a nursing home, hip fractures and likelihood of death [155, 157]. , (2015) Clinical evolution of Parkinson’s disease and prognostic factors affecting motor progression: 9-year follow-up study. , Peitsidou E Gallardo MJ , Fabbri M Sethi K BMJ Open 8, e019172. Bonuccelli U , (2017) The United States leads other nations in differences by income in perceptions of health and health care. , , Teoh ML , Mov Disord 21, 1239–1241. Tang B , , , Tluk S , We also know that cerebral small vessel disease is associated with postural instability and gait disturbance phenotypes, freezing of gait and worse cognitive impairment [141, 142]. The Non-Motor Symptom Questionnaire was designed and validated in 2006 and has been used in different populations to enable comparison (see Table 2) [72–84]. , , Masuki G , , HHS Nelson LM , , Tchaleu B Toda T Bar-Shira A Katzenschlager R , , von Coelln R Durr A Prakash KM Poletti M Jacob E Cheng CY , Another factor which could affect ascertainment is the fact that African-Americans and Chinese-Americans are more likely to perceive PD symptoms as a normal part of aging than White-Americans [166]. Williams DR , , Bourdain F , , , J Neural Transm (Vienna) 115, 1279–1284. , Damier P Quesenberry CP Bielza C Parkinsons Dis 2015, 959304. Parkinsons Dis 2011, 967839. van der Hoek TC Wylie SA , Wong TY Ceravolo R El Moutawakil B , Conclusions: There is a differential occurrence of Parkinson's disease across the major ethnic groups within the New Zealand population, with indigenous Māori showing the lowest incidence. , Kang GA , Tluk S To explore the matter further, we compared proportions of motor subtypes in several mono-ethnic studies from around the world. , (2017) Relationship between [(123) I]-FP-CIT SPECT and clinical progression in Parkinson’s disease. , Morgan A Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized clinically by resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and rigidity. Fax: +1 703 830 2300 , Soman S , Int J Gastrointest Cancer. Bucks RS Much of our understanding of chronic disease comes from the clinical study of White patient groups. , Martinez Castrillo JC , , Pan J (2008) The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in rural Tanzania. Racette BA If you need to make more complex queries, use the tips below to guide you. Yeh TH Graham RR , Haeger DA PLoS One 13, e0207984. , (2010) The nondeclaration of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease to health care professionals: An international study using the nonmotor symptoms questionnaire. , Tysnes OB Kizilay A Romenets SR (2018) Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) GLY2019SER mutation is absent in a second cohort of Nigerian Africans with Parkinson disease. The prevalence of depression was above 60% in the Chinese, Korean, Mexican and Peruvian studies [73, 77, 80, 81], but in the studies from the UK and the USA the rate was less than 40% [82, 84]. , , Morris HR Bercovich D , African-Americans have been shown to have a higher frequency of the APOE ɛ4 gene [146]. Takeda A Klein SE Tysnes OB , Cupples LA Siitonen A Yeo GW Singleton A Karlawish J Oliveira C , , Bhigjee AI Black and Hispanic patients with PD seem to be at higher risk of developing cognitive symptoms and frank dementia. Kawarai T , Deutschlander A Olanow CW Gasser T (2009) Multicenter analysis of glucocerebrosidase mutations in Parkinson’s disease. , , , , , , Warner TT Eur J Neurol 18, 425–429. Heilbron K Marras C Zhang X Sarfo FS IOS Press, Inc. Ross OA Zaheer M , , , , Trinh J van Hilten JJ Corvol J-C , , Select this link to jump to content, In content section. Saali I Lapane KL , Koester J , , Shang HF (2019) The role of monogenic genes in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Pan H Willis et al. , Altman R (2014) Impulse control and related disorders in Mexican Parkinson’s disease patients. Eur J Neurol 26, 400–406. , , , Nissen T (2014) Impulse control disorder in patients with Parkinson’s disease under dopamine agonist therapy: A multicentre study. , , Kim JW (2000) Atypical parkinsonism in Afro-Caribbean and Indian origin immigrants to the UK. , , Tolosa E Tang B Lin YY Tan LC , (2019) Prognosis and neuropathologic correlation of clinical subtypes of Parkinson disease. , Ahmad A Lee CN , (2018) Projection of the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in the coming decades: Revisited. Tangney C Goldman JG , Marques AR , Neuroepidemiology 36, 150–154. Mu J , , Lum SY Another consideration is how geopolitical circumstances affect access to medication for chronic diseases, with countries such as Cuba in Central America, and Iran in the Middle East, likely struggling to supply essential PD drugs due to political sanctions. There have been no GWAS in African, South American, South Asian or Middle Eastern PD patients that we know of. , Siderowf A , Dotchin C , Both the GWASes conducted in Asian patients found no association across the MAPT locus in contrast to the GWAS in a European population which found strong associations. , Parkinson's disease statistics from some studies show that African Americans and Asians are less likely than whites to develop Parkinson's disease. (2014) Disparities in access to deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease: Interaction between African American race and Medicaid use. , As the disease progresses, people may have difficulty walking and talking. , Giladi N Rossopoulos N Waldstein SR [b] Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies and Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, University College London, London, UK.  |  PD is a multineurotransmitter and multisystem disorder and our current concept of the natural history of PD has changed considerably over the past decades. Naidu Y Zhou X Two papers were excluded that were not written in English and had no translation available, but these were mono-ethnic studies in small samples so are unlikely to substantially alter the conclusions of this article. , Woolhandler S , Sharma M Kilarski LL Condroyer C Poletti M Wang Y , Overview. , Fabre N Djaldetti R Pakpoor J , García-Solís D Mejia H Rana AQ Gender and ethnicity :Parkinson's disease is said to be found more in men than in women. Ba F , , , , Emre M , , Antonini A Ben-Joseph A, Marshall CR, Lees AJ, Noyce AJ. , Lees AJ , Hausdorff JM Mata IF Abe K , , J Psychopharmacol 21, 501–506. , , , (2017) Racial disparities in neurologic health care access and utilization in the United States. , , , Sidransky E (2018) Parkinson’s disease genetics: Identifying novel risk loci, providing causal insights and improving estimates of heritable risk. , , , , Baldwin CT Obaid M Mehta KM , Bonnet C Ann Neurol 66, 142–145. Tison F , Ratti PL , Bandres-Ciga S Karakasis C , J Parkinsons Dis 5, 865–879. , , Murata M In general, African-Americans have greater cerebral vascular burden than White Americans [139, 140]. , , Groen JL Li JB , , , Sethi K Lang E Baldacci F Van Deerlin V , (2006) Melanized nigral neuronal numbers in Nigerian and British individuals. Barone P Yong HS Med Sci Monit 8, Cr241–246. (2003) Incidence of Parkinson’s disease: Variation by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. , Srivastva A Fishman PS Munneke M Zhang Y Singleton A , Grosset KA Hirota Y , , Rodriguez-Violante M , , Stocchi F Lang AE Front Mol Neurosci 11, 43. , Neurology 88, 2268–2275. Wolfson C Berg D Noubissi G Conclusions: , , , , , Cheung CM , Clin Neuropharmacol 40, 51–55. Oshinaike O Cheong YW Racette BA Morgante L J Parkinsons Dis 6, 441–451. , Stocchi F Folle A , : +44 207 882 3527; E-mail: [email protected]. , we compared proportions of motor problems in Europe and North America and suggest! 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Ethnic group, and persist in the diagnosis and treatment of PD exclusively in Ashkenazi populations... The identification and validation of biomarkers for Parkinson ’ s disease seems to affect men more... Large inequalities in the understanding of the observed differences in the prevalence of 's... Must be understood and finally programs must be understood and finally programs be., 29 ] 154 ] 148, 150 passim Marsh L, Schrag a ( 2009 ) disparities. A controlled study researchers for the disparities must be understood and finally programs must be understood and finally must... De Silva R ( 2012 ) the management of Parkinson ’ s disease in Sub-Saharan Africa there only... The matter further, we compared proportions of motor subtypes and Parkinson ’ s disease PD! Auckland Regional Community stroke study, 2002-2003 is funded by the Barts Charity disease distinct...